CIVIL WAR, U.S.
1. Emancipating Slaves, Enslaving Free Men: A History of the American Civil War, Jeffrey Rogers Hummel. Why did the South secede, and why did the North prevent them? “Union” was sold as “Freedom.”
Lincoln’s Emancipation Proc. framed as a wartime measure to justify it, and did afford a large number of blacks as recruits to the Northern army. Slaves grew in number AFTER the U.S. Constitution. Even without the Constitution, slaves would have increased in number. reproduced itself through natural increase, rather than through additional captures. Am. Revolution sparked the first emancipation feelings, most significantly felt in the northern states. High rates of manumission in Virginia. By the time their constitution was adopted, there was a cooling of emancipation–S. Carolina, Georgia, etc.
Upper South, particularly Virginia, wanted to maintain the value of their slaves so they could sell them to the South.
Lincoln got the war started. As a republican he was not committed to the abolition of slavery, but only to limiting the number of slave states. 1860 in a 4-way race. In the north, Lincoln run against Douglas. In the south, southern democrats running against the rump whig party. In the deep south, lincoln didn’t win a single state. Why didn’t Lincoln didn’t get the votes in the Deep South. Southern slave holders dominated the state and national governments. Republicans referred to it as the Slave Power, a powerful special interest. Supreme Court Justices owned slaves. Presidents owned slaves.
National gov’t hostile to slavery. Rebuild republican party in slave states, like Missouri. Lincoln hadn’t advocated it, but there were more radical members in his cabinet. A long-term decline of slavery. Needed protection of the federal gov’t to preserve slavery.
Once Lincoln calls out troops, that solidified the South. Once he announces troops to keep states in the unions, slave holders become more unified against the union.
Ending slavery was an unintended consequence of the civil war. Reason the North fought the civil war was to keep the union, not to end slavery. The North suppressed Southern secession was because they wanted to maintain the union and not to stop slavery. The ending of slavery was an unintended consequence of the war. Ending slavery was unintended in the beginning.
Why did the support of the union in the North gain momentum.
Southerners were concerned about tariff advantages for the North.
primary factor was ideological, identifying union with liberty. Lincoln’s phrase “last and best hope of the world.” Splitting of US would be perceived as a failure of democracy for the rest of the world. Southerners weren’t playing by the rules, and Lincoln said that permitting secession is an argument for anarchy.
Peaceful secession might have hastened slavery.
Lincoln’s gov’t was subsidizing slavery. It has to have the power of gov’t behind it. Fugitive Slave Law. Achilles heel of slavery is the runaway. Diminishes the value of the slave and the slave system. Threat to the maintenance of the slave system. Slave patrols. Nat’l gov’t, it was the Fugitive Slave Law. If Northerners had been interested in ending slavery, there were a set of policies that they could have implemented, like repealing the Fugitive Slave Law. Slaver was economical moribund? Not true. As long as slavery had gov’t support, then . . . . Slavery provided large economic rewards. Slavery had been declining in the border states prior to the civil war. 95% of slaves in Delaware prior to Lincoln had been freed. 50% of the Maryland slaves had been freed prior to Lincoln.
Most radical abolitionist was William Lloyd Garrison, advocated immediate compensated emancipation. Radical wedge of the much broader anti-slavery movement. Garrison called for Northern secession. Mainstream historians have a hard time dealing with Garrison’s position. Frederick Douglas also held this position. A moral perfectionism . . . ? Never fully popular in the North. Northerners wanted anti-slavery AND disunion. Can’t have both. When S. Carolina secedes, Garrison believe that they’re bluffing. Once under way, Garrison and other radical abolitionists saw the war as a way of bringing an end to slavery. Garrison, part of a small minority, was almost lynched in Boston by a mob.
The one prominent abolitionist who remained an anti-war abolitionist was Lysander Spooner.
Call for the kidnapping of Governor . . . big debates was whether the Constitution was pro-slavery or anti-slavery. Garrison took the position that the Constitution with its Fugitive Slave Law was a pro-slavery document. John Brown’s raid to facilitate a slave revolt. Spooner had a plan to hold the governor of Virginia hostage in ransom for John Brown’s life.
After the war, Spooner says that the
American indians were less desirable than black slaves because indians could run away. slaves were major assets. S. Carolina is hiring local indian tribes where they’ selling to west indies to pay for the importation of black slaves. west indies slaves difficult to run way–islands.
Title comes from LIncoln quote.
The war resulted in an expansion of gov’t in the north and the south–increased taxation, conscription, repeal of civil liberties, that make war the health of the states. After the war, there’s the post-war ratchet effect. Gov’t invention. Civil War was the great watershed of gov’t expansion. The long-term trend for gov’t power to recede, restrained, limited, and less intrusive. The civil war reverses this trend. The long-run trend starts going in the opposite direction.
How much of this do we blame on lincoln versus the other 3 that ran against him? Mystical identification of liberty with union. Breckenridge, southern democrat who went with the confederacy. South isn’t going to secede
National gov’t did not have the authority to prevent secession. Buchannan would not have been able to prevent the Civil War either.
Bogus jobs created to prevent conscription.
Robert Wenzel of EconomicPolicyJournal interviews Jeffrey Rogers Hummel, author of the book Emancipating Slaves, Enslaving Free Men: A History of the American Civil War. Wenzel guides a great interview. Looking forward to reading Hummel’s book.
1. War Crimes Against Southern Civilians, Walter Cisco, 2007.
2. A Disease in the Public Mind: A New Understanding of Why We Fought the Civil War, Thomas Fleming, 2013.
3. “Who Caused the Bloodbath of 1861-1865?”Thomas Di Lorenzo.
4. Clyde Wilson books.
5. The South in American Literature, 1607-1900, Jay B. Hubbell, 1954.
6. When in the Course of Human Events: Arguing the Case for Southern Secession, Charles Adams, 2000. Here is a review of the book by Richard Ebling.
7. Civil War Volumes, 1-3 Box Set, Shelby Foote, 1986.
8. The Unvanquished: The Corrected Text, William Faulkner, 1991.
9. YOU WILL LOVE THESE SOUTHERN SONGS by Bobby Horton. These songs show a glorious love for country and the preference and cherished love for liberty. These songs also give you a great sense of community, love for its history, and a longing to preserve it.
10. North Against South: The American Illiad, 1848-1877, Ludwell H. Johnson, 2003. Recommended for its critique of “Reconstruction.”
“No period of Southern history has been covered by more distortions in recent times than has 1865-1876. Not too long ago, nearly everybody, including Northerners, regarded this period as a shameful un-American exercise in military rule and limitless corruption. Now, it is established academic “truth” that the only thing wrong with Reconstruction was that it was not ruthless enough. The South should have been subjected to a complete Marxis, egalitarian revolution.” Clyde Wilson.
11. Deconstruction and Reconstruction: Personal Experiences of the Late War (Southern Classic Series), 1998, Richard Taylor.
12. The Real Lincoln:
Edgar Allan Poe, the South’s greatest 19th century writer, despised New Englanders, their pretensions, and their baneful influence on American culture. In his collected essays and criticism, which can be found in many libraries, take a look at his “Boston and the Bostonians,” “Brook Farm,” and “The Literati of New York City.” If you want to know what the people who settled Boston were really like, watch Vincent Price’s Puritan Witch Hunter in the film “The Conqueror Worm,” originally titled “The Witchfinder General,” [can be found here] is based on a Poe story.
13. The Education of Little Tree, Forrest Carter, 1976.
“Then there is the saga of the Alabama writer Forrest Carter, friend and supporter of Governor George Wallace, who wrote the book Gone to Texas upon which Clint Eastwood’s The Outlaw Josey Wales was based. Carter also wrote The Education of Little Tree, about the sufferings of an Indian boy at the hands of puritanical authorities. The book was reprinted by the devotedly multicultural University of New Mexico Press and became celebrated in Native American studies. Any reader other than an American intellectual could see right away that the book is really about the persecution of Southerners by Yankees. Imagine the consternation when Carter’s background was revealed! (The movie version became anti-Southern, of course.” Yankees are the intellectual class.
14. The Burning: Sheridan’s Devastation of the Shenandoah, John L. Heatwole, 1998.
15. War Crimes Against Southern Civilians, Walter Brian Cisco, 2007.
16. “The Cause of the Civil War: Historian, Thomas Fleming, Discovers the Yankee Problem in America,” Thomas Di Lorenzo.
17. Robert Lewis Dabneywas a Southern Presbyterian minister and biographer of General Stonewall Jackson.
18. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties, Mark E. Neely, Jr., 1992.
19. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America, Allen C. Guelzo, 2006.