16th Century

1509-1564, On the Economics of Calvin & Calvinism.  Calvin broke with Aristotle on economics and capital controls.  Calvin argued in favor of capitalism, breaking price controls that stagnated an economy.  “The United States could never have risen to become the world’s financial center without moving past Aristotle, past just price laws, past capital controls” argues Jerry Bowyer.

1513,  from Gary North.  In 1513, Leo X replaced Julius II as Pope. Julius II had begun a huge, expensive reconstruction of St. Peter’s Church in Rome. He hired Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel. Leo X wanted to complete the project, but he soon ran out of money.

1514-1572John Knox, “leader of the Protestant Reformation and is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.”  “. . . While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England, where he rose in the ranks to serve King Edward VI of England as a royal chaplain. He exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer.  “. . . In Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity.”  Rothbard on Presbyterianism and Knox.

cathedral is a seat that contains the seat of a bishop; thus serving as the central church of a dioceseconference, or episcopate.[2] Cathedral in German is Dom from the Latin domus ecclesiae or domus episcopalis.  In Italian it’s Duomo.  In Dutch it’s domkerk.  Churches with the function of “cathedral” are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman CatholicAnglicanOrthodox, and some Lutheran and Methodist churches.  Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appear in ItalyGaulSpain and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches, and episcopal residences.

Episcopal polity is “the church united under the oversight of bishops.”

1517, October 31.  Protestant Reformation.

1520, Anabaptists, or Messianic Communists of their day.

1530William Tyndale was an English scholar and leader of Protestant reform.  Tyndale’s translation was the first English Bible to draw directly from Hebrew and Greek texts, the first English one to take advantage of the printing press, and first of the new English Bibles of the Reformation. It was taken to be a direct challenge to the hegemony of both the Roman Catholic Church and the laws of England to maintain the church’s position. In 1530, Tyndale also wrote The Practyse of Prelates, opposing Henry VIII‘s divorce from Catherine of Aragon on the grounds that it contravened Scripture.  The Authority of the Bible and the Rise of the Modern World, Henning Graf Reventlow, 1985.