17th Century

1653Lord Oliver Cromwell was invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland from 16 December 1653.  According to Dr. Gary North, Cromwell was a “Great cavalry officer. He brought religious toleration to England. No corruption.”  North points to Antonia Fraser’s book, Cromwell, 2001.

Murray Rothbard explains that “For two decades, Roger Williams had worked closely with the most libertarian and individualistic groups in the revolutionary movement in England; but now, just as the laissez-faire, individualist “left” seemed to have triumphed, England suddenly moved precipitously rightward and stateward under the new dictatorship of the Independent Oliver Cromwell. The shift away from liberty in England was embodied in Cromwell’s brutal suppression of the Levellers, the leaders of libertarianism in the Revolution. With the mother country sliding away from liberty and into dictatorship, the aging Williams undoubtedly lost much of his previously firm grip on libertarian principle.”

1655On the Late Massacre in Piedmont


Pre-US Constitutional Charters


Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith, James Billington

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley

1620Mayflower Compact.  Ryan McMaken argues that, like many of so many anti-state documents, the Mayflower Compact had little impact.


1636Harvard began.  Here is Gary North’s history on Harvard.

1640Roger Williams promised autonomy from God for humanist political man.  He opposed Governor John Winthrop, who in 1630 had hoped that Massachusetts would serve the whole world as a city on a hill, a bright beacon of biblical Christianity that would persuade men to construct a biblical civil order in their lands. But is was not Winthrop’s beacon that illuminated the future.  It was Roger Williams’.

Pluralism is polytheism.  And the Darwinian Humanists hold sway today claiming neutrality in religion, yet it is “a philosophy which says that God’s people must remain politically silent, that neutrality is a valid religion, and that the King of history must confine Himself to the home, the church, and the funeral parlor” says Dr. North.
No political order can be religiously neutral, and the modern political order in the United States and other Western nations, called “pluralism,” is in reality polytheism

1641The Massachusetts Body of Liberties.

1642-1659, Puritan Revolution.  Gary North writes that “the Puritans suspected that the curriculum of Oxford and Cambridge was against them, yet they did not seek to change it. They hoped that inward salvation would somehow make Renaissance rationalism Christian. Cromwell changed nothing at Oxford, even though as Lord Protector, he was chancellor of Oxford. John Morgan writes in his survey of Puritan education, Godly Learning: Puritan Attitudes towards Reason, Learning and Education, 1560–1640 (Cambridge University Press, 1986): Puritans did not venture far from the traditional academic routine. The structures of educational institutions and the content as affected by Renaissance urgings seemed to satisfy their need for an academic base. There can certainly be no doubt of the very limited effects of Puritans to the legacy of the Renaissance, or in developing the human intellect in the Baconian sense of the `advancement of learning’…. A novel theory of learning or education lay outside the necessities of a puritan blueprint for the future (pp. 305–6). To indulge in classical education is to indulge in Renaissance education. To force a child to learn Latin is to encourage him to accept the premises either of medieval Catholicism or the Renaissance. Yet today’s would-be Puritans have accepted the error of those Puritans who built Harvard. Harvard went Unitarian in 1804. Christians know something is wrong with rationalism, yet they seem incapable of breaking with the past.”

A lot of kids worrying about money insisted that getting a good government job with paid vacations, 100% medical and dental benefits, and a good pension is the way to go.  Yes, they can make a good living, but at what cost?  And be assured that there is a cost.  Public institutions get their money from tax dollars.  Tax dollars are theft: that money is stolen by the threat of force and violence of government.  Already a government employee is dealing with Satan’s money.  Then there is the issue of how government employees get paid.  They get paid with a salary.  A salary turns the individual into a slave.  Yes, you get one paycheck for the month, and you will do what you are told, regardless of what you’re told, or that public institution will find someone else to fill your shoes.

1642-1651English Civil War.  Gary North writes that “Rhode Island was the first civil order in the West to be established self-consciously on a secular foundation. That took place in 1644 when Parliament during the English Civil War issued a charter to Rhode Island. The colony’s founder, Roger Williams, was the first self-consciously secular political theorist in the West to receive a covenantal charter for a supposedly religiously neutral civil order. The story of the Constitution is the story of Rhode Island’s conquest of America.”

1644Battle of Marston Moor.

(c) Towneley Hall Art Gallery & Museums; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation
(c) Towneley Hall Art Gallery & Museums; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation

1644, Rhode Island receives its covenantal charter during the English Civil War.